Meniti karir di bidang Engineering adalah proses perjalanan yang panjang dan tidak bisa dikatakan mudah. Oleh karena itu dibutuhkan kesungguhan, usaha yang keras dan ketekunan disepanjang proses belajar, maka segala kesulitan dan tantangan bisa teratasi dan dihadapi dengan baik. Ternyata minat dan kemampuan saja belum cukup tanpa disempurnakan dengan usaha yang keras dan ketekunan dalam meraih kesuksesan di bidang Engineering. Allahuakbar 3x
Raw or unprocessed crude oil is not generally useful. Although “light, sweet” (low viscosity, low sulfur) crude oil has been used directly as a burner fuel for steam vessel propulsion, the lighter elements form explosive vapors in the fuel tanks and are therefore hazardous, especially in warships. Instead, the hundreds of different hydrocarbon molecules in crude oil are separated in a refinery into components which can be used as fuels, lubricants, and as feedstock in petrochemicalprocesses that manufacture such products as plastics, detergents, solvents,elastomers and fibers such as nylon and polyesters.
Petroleumfossil fuels are burned in internal combustion engines to provide power for ships, automobiles, aircraft engines, lawn mowers, chainsaws, and other machines. Different boiling points allow the hydrocarbons to be separated bydistillation. Since the lighter liquid products are in great demand for use in internal combustion engines, a modern refinery will convert heavy hydrocarbons and lighter gaseous elements into these higher value products.
The oil refinery in Haifa, Israel is capable of processing about 9 million tons (66 million barrels) of crude oil a year. Its two cooling towers are landmarks of the city’s skyline.
Oil can be used in a variety of ways because it contains hydrocarbons of varyingmolecular masses, forms and lengths such as paraffins, aromatics, naphthenes(or cycloalkanes), alkenes, dienes, and alkynes. While the molecules in crude oil include different atoms such as sulfur and nitrogen, the hydrocarbons are the most common form of molecules, which are molecules of varying lengths and complexity made of hydrogen and carbonatoms, and a small number of oxygen atoms. The differences in the structure of these molecules account for their varying physical and chemical properties, and it is this variety that makes crude oil useful in a broad range of applications.
Once separated and purified of any contaminants and impurities, the fuel or lubricant can be sold without further processing. Smaller molecules such asisobutane and propylene or butylenes can be recombined to meet specific octanerequirements by processes such as alkylation, or less commonly, dimerization. Octane grade of gasoline can also be improved by catalytic reforming, which involves removing hydrogen from hydrocarbons producing compounds with higher octane ratings such as aromatics. Intermediate products such as gasoils can even be reprocessed to break a heavy, long-chained oil into a lighter short-chained one, by various forms of cracking such as fluid catalytic cracking, thermal cracking, andhydrocracking. The final step in gasoline production is the blending of fuels with different octane ratings, vapor pressures, and other properties to meet product specifications.
Petroleum products are usually grouped into three categories: light distillates (LPG, gasoline, naphtha), middle distillates (kerosene, diesel), heavy distillates and residuum (heavy fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax, asphalt). This classification is based on the way crude oil is distilled and separated into fractions (called distillates andresiduum) as in the above drawing.